In this article I want to share with you the AIS examination questions that have popped up over the years and will be perfect to help you brush up and check your preparation. To help you study, I have set them up graphically so that the answers are not visible as long as you touch or click on the '+'. These questions are perfect not only for the AIS sommelier coursebut also for the FISAR course, FIS or any other association. Since you cannot know in advance all the AIS 2022 examination questions (and that would not even be correct), how about using these questions from past sommelier exams - and my answers - to supplement your study?

AIS 2022 exam questions: from the name of the wine to the name of the grape variety

1) Can you indicate which vines are used to produce Barco Reale di Carmignano?

Sangiovese (50-80 %)

Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon (10-20 %)

Canaiolo nero, Canaiolo bianco, Malvasia bianca lunga, Trebbiano Toscano (0-10%)

2) Which grape variety is used to produce the Bianco Vergine Valdichiana?

Trebbiano Toscano (20-100 %)

Chardonnay, Grechetto, Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio (0-80 %)

 

3) Which vine variety is used to produce Lugana?

Turbiana (90-100%)

4) Which grape variety is used to produce Rossese di Dolceacqua?

Rossese (95-100%)

5) What is the main grape variety of the wine called Ciró?

Cirò Rosso: Gaglioppo (100%)

Cirò Bianco: Greco Bianco (90-100%)

6) Can you indicate which grape varieties are used to produce Chianti?

Sangiovese (75-100%)

Canaiolo, Trebbiano, White Malvasia, Sauvignon and Merlot (0 - 25%)

7) Can you indicate which vines are used to produce Rosso di Montepulciano?

Sangiovese (60-80%)

Black Canaiolo (10-20%)

8) Can you indicate which grape varieties are used to produce Chianti Classico?

Sangiovese (80-100%)

Canaiolo, Colorino, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon (0-20%)

9) Which grape variety is used to produce Gabiano?

Barbera

10) Which grape variety is used to produce Barbaresco?

Nebbiolo

11) Which grape variety is used to produce Gattinara?

Nebbiolo (90-100%)

Vespolina (0-4%)

Bonarda (0-10%)

12) With which grape variety is Albana di Romagna produced?

Albana (100%)

13) Which grape variety is used to produce the Campania DOCG Taurasi wine?

Aglianico

14) What is the primary grape variety of the Umbrian DOCG wine Torgiano Rosso Riserva?

Sangiovese (50-70 %)

Black Canaiolo (15-30 %)

Trebbiano Toscano (0-10 %)

15) Cerasuolo d'Abruzzo wine, from which grapes is it made?

Montepulciano (85-100%)

16) Which vine variety is used to produce the well-known Ansonica Costa dell'Argentario wine?

Ansonica (100%)

17) Can you list at least three grape varieties present in Carmignano DOCG wine?

Sangiovese (min 50 %)

Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon (10-20 %)

Black Canaiolo (0-20 %)

Trebbiano toscano, Canaiolo bianco, Malvasia del Chianti (0-10 %)

 

18) Main grape variety Vernaccia di Serra Petrona.

Black Vernaccia (85 - 100%)

other black grape varieties

19) The main grape varieties of Frascati.

Malvasia bianca di candia (min 70 %)

Bombino or Trebbiano Toscano or Greco bianco (max 30 %)

20) Main grape variety of Soave.

Garganega

21) Main varietal of Torgiano Rosso.

Sangiovese

22) Main grape variety of Sannio Falanghina.

Falanghina

AIS 2022 exam questions: from grape variety name to wine name

23) Name three wines from Valle d'Aosta.

Blanc Demorge, Chambave Muscat, Donnas, Fumin, Gamay

24) Name three wines from Lombardy.

Pinot Noir dell'Oltrepo Pavese, Buttafuoco, Garda Riesling, Capriano del Colle, Franciacorta Saten, Franciacorta Rosé, Franciacorta Millesimato

 

25) Name three Trentino wines.

Alto Adige Gewurztraminer, Alto Adige Lagrain, Alto Adige Pinot Noir, Alto Adige Pino Bianco, Alto Adige Sauvignon, Alto Adige Riesling, Alto Adige Goldmuskateller,

26) Name three Ligurian wines.

Rossese di Dolceacqua, Pigato, Ligurian Vermentino, Colli di Luni white, Cinque Terre Sciacchetrà

27) Name three Sicilian wines.

Nero d'Avola, Caricante, Etna Rosso, Etna Bianco, Moscato di Pantelleria, Cerasuolo di Vittoria

28) Name three wines from Abruzzo.

Montepulciano d'Abruzzo delle Colline Teramane, Trebbiano d'Abruzzo, Cerasuolo d'Abruzzo, Tullum, Controguerra

29) Name three wines from Molise.

Tintilia, Biferno bianco, Biferno rosso, Rotae

30) Name three wines from Basilicata.

Aglianico del Vulture, Matera Bianco, Grottino di Roccanova

31) Name three wines from Sardinia.

Vermentino di Gallura, Cannonau di Sardegna, Carignano del Sulcis red riserva, Girò di Cagliari, Nasco di Cagliari, Monica di Sardegna superiore, Monica di Cagliari liquoroso dolce

32) Name three wines from Lazio.

Frascati Superiore, Cesanese del Piglio, Cannellino di Frascati, Est!!! Est!!! Est!! of Montefiascone

33) Name 3 wines from Calabria.

Cirò Rosso Superiore, Melissa Bianco, Pollino, Greco di Bianco

34) Name three wines from Campania.

Taurasi, Greco di Tufo, Fiano di Avellino, Aglianico del Taburno

35) Name 3 wines from Apulia.

Primitivo di Manduria dolce naturale, Castel del Monte Nero di Troia riserva, Aleatico di Puglia, Martina, Ostuni

36) Name 3 wines from Piedmont.

Barolo, Barbera, Dolcetto di Diano d'Alba, Erbaluce

37) Name 3 wines from'Emilia Romagna

Albana di Romagna, Pagadebit, Lambrusco di Sorbara, Bosco Eliceo, Ortrugo

38) Name three wines from Friuli Venezia Giulia.

Collio Sauvignon, Collio Ribolla gialla, Picolit

39) Name 3 wines from Marche.

Verdicchio di Jesi, Verdicchio di Matelica, Rosso Piceno, Rosso Conero

 

40) Name three wines from Tuscany.

Brunello di Montalcino, Rosso di Montalcino, Rosso di Montepulciano, Chianti dei Colli Senesi, Chianti Classico

41) Name 3 wines from'Umbria

Grechetto di Todi, Torgiano Rosso Riserva, Sagrantino di Montefalco, Orvieto Classico

 

42) Name three wines from Veneto.

Amarone della Valpolicella, Valpolicella Ripasso, Recioto della Valpolicella, Recioto di Soave, Soave

AIS 2022 exam questions: DOC & DOCG

43) What are Italian DOCGs?

The AOCG is a recognition reserved for AOC wines from expressly delimited areas or for AOC wines that have been in existence for at least 10 years and that are considered to be of particular value due to their intrinsic quality characteristics, the commercial reputation they have acquired and that in the last two years have been claimed by at least 51% of producers representing 51% of the total area declared in the wine register eligible for the claim to the relevant designation.

44) What was the first red wine to have DOCG status?

Brunello di Montalcino DOCG

45) What was the first Italian white wine to have DOCG status?

Albana di Romagna DOCG

46) What was the first white wine to have DOC status?

Frascati DOC

47) What was the first Italian wine to have DOC status?

In 1966, four DOCs were recognised: Ischia Bianco, Rosso and Superiore, Vernaccia di San Geminiano, Frascati, and Est Est di Montefiascone.

48) List 5 DOCGs from Veneto.

DOCG: Amarone della Valpolicella, Bagnoli Friularo, Bardolino Superiore, Asolo - ProseccoColli di Conegliano, Colli Euganei Fior d'arancio, Conegliano Valdobbiadene - Prosecco, Lison, Montello, Piave Malanotte, Recioto della Valpolicella, Recioto di Gambellara, Recioto di Soave.

[In bold I have highlighted the DOCGs which - in my opinion - are easier to memorise].

49) List 10 Veneto DOCs.

DOC: Arcole, Bagnoli, Bardolino, Bianco di Custoza or Custoza, Breganze, Colli Berici, Colli Euganei, Corti Benedettine del Padovano, Gambellara, Garda, Lessini Durello, Lison-Pramaggiore, Lugana, Merlara, Montello - Colli Asolani, Monti Lessini or Lessini, Piave, Prosecco, Riviera del Brenta, San Martino della Battaglia, Soave, Valdadige Terradeiforti, Valpolicella, Valpolicella Ripasso, Venice, Vicenza, Vigneti della Serenissima or Serenissima.

[In bold I have highlighted the AOCs that - in my opinion - are easier to memorise].

50) What are the DOCGs of Lazio?

DOCG: Cannellino di Frascati, Cesanese del Piglio or Piglio, Frascati Superiore.

51) Can you name at least 10 DOCs in Lazio?

DOC: aleatico di gradoli, aprilia, atina, bianco capena, Roman Castles, cerveteri, cesanese di affile or affile, cesanese di olevano romano or olevano romano, circeo, colli albani, colli della sabina, colli etruschi viterbesi o Tuscia, Colli Lanuvini, choirs, East of Monte Fiascone, Frascati, Genazzano, Marino, Monte Compatri Colonna, Moscato di Terracina or Terracina, Nettuno, Orvieto, Rome, Tarquinia, Velletri, Vignanello, Zagarolo.

[In bold I have highlighted the AOCs that - in my opinion - are easier to memorise].

52) What are Piedmont's DOCGs?

DOCG: Alta Langa, Asti, Barbaresco, Barbera d'Asti, Barbera del Monferrato Superiore, Barolo, Bracchetto d'Acqui, Cortese di Gavi or Gavi, Dogliani, Dolcetto di Diano d'Alba, Dolcetto di Ovada Superiore or Ovada, Erbaluce di Caluso or Caluso, Gattinara, Ghemme, Roero, Ruché di Castagnole Monferrato.

53) Can you name at least 10 Piedmontese DOCs?

DOC: Sunrise, Albugnano, Barbera d'Alba, Barbera del Monferrato, Boca, Bramaterra, Calosso, Canavese, Carema, Cisterna d'Asti, Collina Torinese, Colline Novaresi, Colline Saluzzesi, Colli Tortonesi, Cortese dell'Alto Monferrato, Coste della Sesia, Dolcetto d'Acqui, Dolcetto d'Alba, Dolcetto d'Asti, Dolcetto di Ovada, Fara, Freisa d'Asti, Freisa di Chieri, Gabiano, Grignolino d'Asti, Grignolino del Monferrato Casalese, Langhe, Lessona, Loazzolo, Malvasia di Casorzo, Malvasia di Castelnovo Don Bosco, Monferrato, Nebbiolo d'Alba, Piedmont, Pinerolese, Rubino di Cantavenna, Sizzano, Strevi, Terre Alfieri, Valli Ossolane, Valsusa, Verduno Pelaverga.

[In bold I have highlighted the AOCs that - in my opinion - are easier to memorise].

54) How many and which are the DOCGs of Lombardy?

There are five DOCGs in Lombardy: Franciacorta, Moscato di Scanzo or Scanzo, Oltrepo Pavese Metodo Classico, Sforzato di Valtellina or Valtellina, Valtellina Superiore.

55) Can you list at least 10 DOCs from Lombardy?

DOC: Botticino, Bonarda dell'Oltrepo PaveseButtafuoco dell'Oltrepo Pavese or Buttafuoco, Capriano del Colle, Casteggio, Cellatica, Curte Franca, GardaGarda Colli Mantovani, Lambrusco Mantovano, Lugana, Oltrepo Pavese, Oltrepo Pavese Pinot Grigio, Pinot Nero dell'Oltrepo Pavese, Riviera del Garda Bresciano, San Martino della BattagliaSan Colombano all'Ambro or San Colombano, Sangue di Giuda dell'Oltrepo Pavese or Blood of Judas, Terre del Colleoni or Colleoni, Valcalepio, Valtellina rosso, Valtenesi.

[In bold I have highlighted the AOCs that - in my opinion - are easier to memorise].

56) How many and which DOCGs are there in Tuscany?

There are 11 DOCGs in Tuscany: Brunello di Montalcino, Carmignano, Chianti, Chianti Classico, Elba Aleatico Passito, Montecucco Sangiovese, Morellino di Scansano, Suvereto, Val di Cornia Rosso, Vernaccia di San Gimignano, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano.

57) Can you name at least 10 DOCs in Tuscany?

DOC: Ansonica Costa dell'Argentario, Bianco dell'Empolese, Bianco di Pitigliano, Bolgheri o Bolgheri Sassicaia, Candia dei Colli Apuani, Capalbio, Colli dell'Etruria centrale, Colli di Luni, Colline Lucchesi, Cortona, Elba, Grance Senesi, Maremma Toscana, Monte Carlo, Montecucco, Monteregio di Massa Marittima, Montescudaio, Moscadello di Montalcino, Orcia, Parrina, Pomino, Rosso di Montalcino, Rosso di Montepulciano, San Geminiano, Sant'Antimo, San Torpè, Sovana, Terratico di Bibbona, Terre di Casole, Terre di Pisa, Val d'Arbia, Valdarno di Sopra, Valdichiana Toscana, Val di Cornia, Val di Nevole, Vin Santo del Chianti, Vin Santo del Chianti Classico, Vin Santo of Carmignano, Vin Santo di Montepulciano.

[In bold I have highlighted the AOCs that - in my opinion - are easier to memorise].

58) How many and which are the DOCG wines of Campania?

There are four DOCGs in Campania: Aglianico del Taburno, Fiano di Avellino, Greco di Tufo, Taurasi.

59) List 10 DOCs from Campania.

DOC: AversaCampi Flegrei, Capri, Casavecchia di Pontelatone, Castel San Lorenzo, Cilento, Amalfi Coast, Falanghina del Sannio, Falerna del Massico, Galluccio, Irpinia, Ischia, Sorrento Peninsula, Sannio, Vesuvius.

[In bold I have highlighted the AOCs that - in my opinion - are easier to memorise].

60) What are the DOCGs of Sardinia?

Sardinia's DOCG is only 1: Vermentino di Gallura

61) List 10 DOCs from Sardinia.

DOC: Alghero, Arborea, Cagliari, Campidano di Terralba, Cannonau of Sardinia, Carignano del Sulcis, Girò of Cagliari, Malvasia di Bosa, Mandrolisai, Monica of Sardinia, Moscato di Sardegna, Moscato di Sorso-Sennori, Nasco of Cagliari, Nuragus of CagliariSardinia Semidano, Vermentino di Sardegna, Vernaccia di Oristano.

[In bold I have highlighted the AOCs that - in my opinion - are easier to memorise].

AIS 2022 exam questions: wines from starter to dessert for each region

62) Name 4 wines from appetizer to dessert from Umbria.

Appetiser: Torgiano sparkling wine DOC

First: Montefalco DOC

Second: Torgiano Rosso Riserva DOC

Sweet: Montefalco Sagrantino passito

63) Name 4 wines from the#039;hors d'oeuvre to dessert from Abruzzo.

Starter = Cerasuolo d'Abruzzo

Primo = Trebbiano d'Abruzzo

Second = Montepulciano d'Abruzzo

Sweet = Controguerra Passito DOC

64) Name 4 wines from appetiser to dessert from Apulia.

Starter = Martina Spumante

First = Red toast

Second = Primitivo di Manduria

Sweet = Moscato di Trani

65) Name 4 wines from the antipasto to dessert in Tuscany.

Starter = Ansonica Costa dell'Argentario

Primo = Chianti Classico

Second = Brunello di Montalcino

Sweet = Montecarlo Vin Santo

66) Name 4 wines from appetiser to dessert from Piedmont.

Antipasto = Alta Langa

Primo = Nebbiolo d'Alba

Second = Barolo

Sweet = Moscato d'Asti

67) Name 4 wines from appetizer to dessert from Trentino.

Starter = Gold Muskateller

Primo = Pinot Blanc

Second = Lagrain

Sweet = Traminer Passito

68) Name 4 wines from starter to dessert from the Val d'Aosta Valley

Starter = Blanc de Morgex

Primo = Prié

Second = Fumin

Sweet = Chambave moscato passito

69) Name 4 wines from appetizer to dessert from Emilia Romagna.

Appetiser = Ravenna Famous IGT

Primo = Lambrusco di Sorbara

Second = Sangiovese Superiore Riserva

Sweet = Romagna Albana passita riserva

70) Name 4 wines from appetiser to dessert from Veneto

Starter = Prosecco di Conegliano Valdobbiadene

Primo = Soave

Second = Amarone della Valpolicella

Sweet = Recioto della Valpolicella

71) Name 4 wines from appetiser to dessert from Lazio.

Antipasto = Frascati superiore

Primo = Cannellino di Frascati

Second = Roman Castles

Sweet = Moscato di Terracina passito

72) Name 4 wines from starter to dessert from Marche.

Starter = Verdicchio di Matelica DOC

Primo = Rosso Piceno

Second = Lacrima di Morro d'Alba

Sweet = Vernaccia di Serrapetrone sparkling wine

73) Name 4 wines from appetiser to dessert from Calabria.

Appetiser = Cirò bianco

Primo = Cirò rosé

Second = Cirò Rosso Superiore

Sweet = Greco di Bianco

74) Name 4 wines from appetizer to dessert from Basilicata.

Starter = Matera sparkling wine

Primo = Matera Greco

Second = Aglianico del Vulture

Sweet = L'Autentica Basilicata IGT

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AIS 2022 exam questions: France

75) What wording precedes the name of the great wines of Bordeaux?

1er grand cru class

76) To which French region does Sauternes belong?

Bordeaux

77) From which vine variety is the famous Petrus wine obtained?

Merlot

AIS 2022 exam questions: regional grape varieties

78) What are the main red grape varieties in Sardinia?

Cannonau, Carignano del Sulcis, Nuragus, Vernaccia, Cagnulari, Girò, Monica.

79) How many DOCG wines are there in the province of Siena?
80) By what other name is the Nero d'Avola vine known in Sicily?
81) What are the main white grape varieties in Sardinia?

Vermentino, Nasco, Moscato, Malvasia

AIS 2022 exam questions: tasting

82) Describe the olfactory intensity and persistence.
83) Primary, secondary and tertiary scents: what are they?

The primary aromas of wine are those derived from the grape variety.

The secondary aromas of wine are those resulting from the wine-making process.

The tertiary aromas of wine are those resulting from post-production ageing.

84) Bitter, sweet, sour and salty are perceived in the tongue and through which papillae.

All taste buds are capable of perceiving these tastes.

While it is true that some areas of the tongue may perceive sour, sweet, spicy, bitter or salty before other areas, it is equally true that the perception of flavours is distributed evenly over the whole tongue area.

85) In the gustatory examination, what are the tactile and taste sensations?

The tactile sensations are: pseudocaloric, softness, astringency, pungency.

Flavour sensations are: sweetness, acidity, savouriness, bitterness.

86) How does increasing and decreasing the temperature of a wine affect the sensations of sweetness/softness? And in savouriness?

If the temperature of the wine increases, the soft sensations and thus also the sweetness are more noticeable.

If the temperature of the wine decreases, the hard sensations are more noticeable and thus also the savouriness.

AIS 2022 exam questions: Sparkling wines

87) List 5 grape varieties suitable for classic method sparkling wine production.

Pinot blanc, pinot noir, pinot meunier, chardonnay, erbaluce.

88) List 5 grape varieties suitable for sparkling in autoclaves (Charmat method)

Moscato, glera, brachetto, malvasia, albana, lambrusco di Sorbara.

89) What is the quantity of sugar foreseen for the various types of sparkling wine: pas dosé, brut, extra dry, dry, demi-sec, sweet.
  • Pas Dosé, Dosage Zero or Brut Nature: sugar less than 3 g/l and no added sugar after second fermentation;
  • Extra Brutsugar less than 6 g/l;
  • Brutsugar less than  12 g/l;
  • Extra Drysugar between 12 g/l and 17 g/l;
  • Sec or Drysugar between 17 g/l and 32 g/l;
  • Demi-sec or Abboccatosugar between 32 g/l and 50 g/l;
  • Sweet or Douxsugar exceeding 50 g/l.
90) How is Classical Method sparkling wine made?

BASE WINE PREPARATION

Le grapes intended for this production must come from the DOC areas of Oltrepò pavese, Franciacorta, Trentino-Alto Adige and the municipality of Serralunga d'Alba, with the exclusion of the plain and valley floor areas, from Pinot nero, Pinot bianco, Pinot grigio, Pinot meunier and Chardonnay vines in a minimum percentage of 85% (the remaining 15% must not come from aromatic grapes).

La grape harvest must be particularly cared for and transported in a short time, so that the grapes do not crush, in order not to have juice loss, unwanted and uncontrolled fermentation, and undesirable oxidative phenomena.

La pressing must be soft to extract as little polyphenols as possible; for the same reason, destemming is particularly important, as the stalks are rich in tannins. The drained flower must is then left to decant for about a day, to remove the suspended lees and much of the undesirable microbial flora.

This is followed by a white fermentation, which lasts a maximum of just over three weeks, at a temperature not exceeding 20 °C. The subsequent stages are similar to those of a normal white wine-making process, with racking, clarification and filtration, often repeating analytical checks in order to be able to intervene promptly if any values do not correspond to the desired ones.

SPARKLING PROCESS

La batch or cuvée is defined as grape must, wine, the result of mixing grapes or wines with different characteristics, intended for the production of a specific type of sparkling wine. In its formation, the addition of wines from previous vintages is permitted to a maximum percentage of 30%. If the vintage was exceptional, this addition is not made; the sparkling wines obtained are called vintage wines and must bear the year of production on the label. Sparkling wines millesimates must mature in contact with the yeasts for at least 24 months from the time of bottling. To achieve re-fermentation, it is necessary to add the liqueur de tiragei.e. a wine syrup containing refined cane or beet sugar, yeasts, mineral substances and others that make it easy to remove the lees later.

yeastsadded between 2-5%, are mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus. They must have precise characteristics, such as that of being active even at the low temperatures, between 11-13 °C, present in the rooms where the re-fermentation takes place, of withstanding the high pressures inside the bottles due to the carbon dioxide they produce (5-6 atm), of releasing very pleasant aromas and very little volatile acidity, and of forming a caseous-sandy deposit so that the lees do not adhere to the glass of the bottle.

Lo sugar added is essential for the refermentation carried out by the yeasts. Since 4 g/l of sugar can be transformed with the production of 1 atm of overpressure, approximately 24 g/l is added to arrive at more or less 6 atm.

Le mineral substances are mostly ammonium salts that serve the development of yeasts. Other substances are also added to facilitate the compacting of lees during the remuage.
The wine with the addition of liqueur de tirage is bottled in traditional bottleschampagnotteThese bottles are made of dark, particularly thick glass in order to withstand the high pressures created by the formation of carbon dioxide. The bottles are closed with a crown cap, which has the bidule: small plastic cylinder useful for better collecting the lees at the end of the remuage.
Foaming takes place in bottles arranged in horizontal stacks, in dark, cool cellars to improve the fineness of the perlage, due to the slow re-fermentation by the yeasts over a few months. The regulations of the Istituto italiano spumante classico state that this phase must be completed within 120 days, and that inside the bottles the pressure, measured with a pressure gauge at a temperature of 20 °C, must be a minimum of 5 atm.

If there were not the subsequent long period of maturation on the lees, the product obtained at this point would not attain its due characteristics of quality and value. Maturation on the lees can last up to many years and allows for a wide range of transformations that enrich the sparkling wine's bouquet and aroma.Yeast autolysisin particular, due to the death and subsequent rupture of the cells, which release many previously processed aromatic substances - such as amino acids, ethers, esters, higher alcohols and enzymes - into the liquid, operates recombinations and reactions with the formation of a particularly large number of pleasant secondary compounds.

Depending on the grape varieties used, the area of production and the desired body, this phase can last up to 7-8 years. The Italian Spumante Classico Institute stipulates that maturation on the lees must last a minimum of 15 months from the time of bottling, and 24 months for vintage wines.
Periodically, the bottles are subjected to the so-called earthworksduring which they are shaken and moved to prevent the lees from encrusting on the glass, and to facilitate contact of the various substances released by autolysis with the liquid mass.
Le pupitres are inclined trestles with shaped holes in which the bottles are placed on the cork side, in an almost horizontal position, and then subjected to remuage.
At the end of the remuage, the bottles are in an almost vertical position. After carrying out all the necessary checks, the ready bottles are removed from the pupitres and stored upright, at the tippending the dégorgementfor a period that varies according to business needs.
Dégorgement is a delicate operation to remove the lees collected under the cork, trying to lose as little wine and carbon dioxide as possible, and to obtain a brilliant product. It used to be performed à la voléebut if the person performing the operation was not more than skilful, large quantities of product were also lost. Today, the system is applied à la glaceby immersing the neck of the bottle in a refrigerating solution at -25 °C for a few minutes, so that the part of the wine present under the cork, and containing the lees, freezes. The bottle is then returned to its normal position and the crown cork and frozen cylinder containing the lees are removed; this process is aided by the overpressure inside the bottle. If the operator is particularly skilful, the pressure loss is reduced to around 0.5 atm. The sparkling wine should appear sparkling and free of abnormal flavours; then the liqueur d'expédition can be added if necessary.
The addition of the liqueur d'expédition partly compensates for the lost liquid, so between 5 and 20 mol is added.
On the basis of residual sugar, sparkling wines are classified as shown in Table 29.18.
If dosing is not carried out, the sparkling wine is defined as pas dosé or nature and the level of sparkling wine inside the bottles may not be regular: such a sparkling wine contains only 0-6 g/l of sugar. It is forbidden to add liqueur d'expédition to quality aromatic sparkling wines such as Muscat or Malvasia.
The bottle is then corked with the mushroom-shaped cork and subsequently anchored with the metal cage. To allow a perfect amalgamation between the sparkling wine and the liqueur d'expédition to take place, the bottles are kept in the cellar for a few more months. Shortly before they are put on the market, the capsule, metal cage, label and back label are attached.

91) What'is debourbage?

In classic method sparkling wine making, debourbage is a process for removing dust on the grapes.

AIS 2022 exam questions: spirits

91) What is mistelle?

mixture of must with a minimum natural total alcohol content of 12° and selected spirits up to 16-22° and to make the must itself unfermentable.

92) What is meant by 'special wines'?

Speciality wines are wines made from fresh grapes, musts or wines that have undergone certain treatments during or after their elaboration and whose characteristics come not only from the grapes themselves, but also from the elaboration technique used.

The special wines are:

  • wines under fioretta,
  • liqueur wines,
  • sparkling wines,
  • gasified wines.
93) List at least 5 distillates and the raw materials from which they are derived.

Cognac = distillation of white wine

Armagnac =

Brandy =

Grappa =

Whisky =

94) From which grape varieties is Armagnac made?

Ugni blanc (Trebbiano), Colombard, Folle blanc, Baco blanc

95) In which areas is Armagnac produced?

Bas Armagnac = is considered the best of the three production areas, due to the sandy soil, poor in limestone, and rich in marine sediments.

Ténarèze = still has some sandy soils, but contains predominantly clay-limestone and clay-sandy soils. The eaux-de-vie are similar to those of Bas-Armagnac depending on the more or less sandy soils. It is a mixed zone of vines and cereals.

Haut Armagnac = the area is disadvantaged by having calcareous and clay-limestone soils; the only suitable areas are the hilltops, where there are some sandy-clay deposits. The area produces very little Armagnac.

96) What are the differences between tequila and rum?

Tequila is a distillate obtained from thefermented agavewhile rum is a distillate of the sugar cane (agricultural) or molasses (industrial).

97) Port is a liqueur wine of what nationality?

Portuguese.

98) What is grappa made from?

Distilling the marc.

99) What'is the veil de flor?

is a veil that forms inside the barrel in Andalusian sherry. It indicates the layer of yeast that forms on the surface of these wines during fermentation. The flor forms spontaneously under certain winemaking conditions, thanks precisely to natural yeasts present in the region of Andalusia. In the production of sherries, on the other hand, to encourage the growth of flor yeasts, the slightly porous oak barrels are deliberately filled only about five sixths full with the young wine, leaving an empty space 'of two fists', and the cork is not closed completely. Flor yeasts prefer cool climates and high humidity levels.

100) What flavour does vel de flor give Sherry?

Fresh with a residual bread fragrance.

101) In which Italian wine is vel de flor present?

Vernaccia di Oristano.

AIS 2022 examination questions: miscellaneous

102) In the Colli Orientali del Friuli, a great white wine has been produced for centuries from an androsterile vine with scents and aromas of yellow-fleshed fruit and acacia honey and a persistent flavour, what is it called?

Colli Orientali del Friuli DOC Picolit.

103) In which well-known Ligurian wine is the Bosco grape present?

Cinque Terre DOC (minimum percentage: 40%).

104) By what other names are Nebbiolo grapes called?

Chiavennasca (Valtellina), Prunent (Aosta Valley), Spanna (Piedmont).

As always, I hope you enjoyed this article and found it useful.

Do you have any other questions to share with the aspiring sommeliers who follow me? How many questions did you answer correctly? Tell me in a comment!

Cheers 🍷

Chiara

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